BioNTech SE (Nasdaq: BNTX, “BioNTech” or “the Company”) announced the publication of preclinical data on its novel mRNA vaccine approach against autoimmune diseases in the peer-reviewed journal Science. The publication titled “A non-inflammatory mRNA vaccine for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis” co-authored by SFB principal investigator Ari Waisman summarizes the findings on the disease-suppressing effects of a non-inflammatory, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine in several clinically relevant mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS). More . . .

Patients suffering from COVID-19 can develop concomitant and long-term symptoms in their nervous system. The most common symptom in this context is the loss of the sense of smell and taste, while more severe symptoms such as stroke, cerebral seizures, or meningitis are possible. A team of scientists from the medical faculties at the Universities of Münster and Duisburg-Essen investigated this phenomenon, termed Neuro-COVID. They could demonstrate that immune and interferon responses are weakened in COVID-19 patients. These results were recently published in the journal Immunity.

The research teams applied state-of-the-art single-cell transcription technologies, which help visualize the expression of thousands of genes on a single-cell level. “This allowed us to characterize in detail the immune response of Neuro-COVID in the cerebral fluid at a location near the brain”, says PD Dr. Gerd Meyer zu Hörste, a senior physician in the Department of Neurology at the University Hospital Münster and senior author of the study publication. “From a group of 102 COVID-19 patients, we identified those who developed neurological symptoms and required a cerebral fluid extraction for further diagnosis”, says PD Dr. Dr. Mark Stettner, who is a senior physician in the Depart

Priv.-Doz. Dr-Gerd Meyer zu Hörste (left) and Dr. Michael Heming investigated “Neuro-Covid”.

ment of Neurology at the University Hospital Essen and led the study together with Meyer zu Hörste.

Samples from eight Neuro-COVID patients were collected and sent to Münster for analysis. “An increased number of T cells in the patients’ cerebral fluid had reached a stage of exhaustion”, says Dr. Michael Heming, first author of the study and assistant physician in the Department of Neurology at the University Hospital Münster. Also, the interferon answer of Neuro-COVID patients was reduced compared with viral brain inflammation. Interferons are an essential early defense mechanism for viral diseases. The researchers further found an increased number of dedifferentiated phagocytes in the cerebral fluid.

“These findings indicate a reduced antiviral immune response in Neuro-COVID patients”, says Prof. Christoph Kleinschnitz, Director of the Department of Neurology at the University Hospital Essen. A more detailed understanding of the Neuro-COVID phenomenon is the basis for faster disease detection and improved treatment. “Publication of the study results in a high-class journal such as Immunity is the result of intensive and hard work. Our researchers achieved impressive results within a short time”, says Prof. Wiendl, Director of the Department of Neurology at the University Hospital Münster.

It has long been acknowledged that multiple sclerosis disease risk is associated with reduced sun-exposure, and subsequent low vitamin D levels. The study by Ostkamp et al. now assessed the relationship between measures of sun exposure and MS severity. For this, the researchers analyzed data of around 2,000 patients from the German NationMS- and the French BIONAT cohort. To approximate a patients’ sunlight exposure, the researchers used serum vitamin D measurements, the geographical latitude of residence, and UV-light estimates extracted from the recordings of NASA satellites. As expected, high serum vitamin D could be shown to be associated with a reduced MS severity score, reduced risk for relapses, and lower disability accumulation over time. Furthermore, low latitude associated with higher vitamin D levels, a lower MS severity score, fewer gadolinium-enhancing lesions, and lower disability accumulation over time. As an exception, no association between latitude and disability was found in patients who were treated with IFN-β before the start of the study. This lined up with a finding from an RNA-sequencing analysis, in which the researchers could show an induction of the type I interferon-pathway in a small cohort of patients, who were treated with narrowband UVB-light for six weeks.

Patrick Ostkamp was in the team of scientists who analysed the cohort data. (Photo: Leßmann)

Therefore, as UVB potentially initiates an interferon response itself, it might be possible that no effect of UVB can be observed in patients whose blood is already saturated with interferons. Although the study shows that sunlight exposure has a beneficial effect on MS severity, the researchers argue against excessive sun exposure, as the observed effects of UV-light were of comparably low magnitude, and photosensitive patients who carried a genetic variant of the melanocortin-1-receptor (an important factor for pigmentation) even seemed to worsen upon increased sunlight exposure, according their MRI activity.

Reference: Ostkamp P, Salmen A, Pignolet B, Görlich D, Andlauer TFM, Schulte-Mecklenbeck A, Gonzalez-Escamilla G, Bucciarelli F, Gennero I, Breuer J, Antony G, Schneider-Hohendorf T, Mykicki N, Bayas A, Then Bergh F, Bittner S, Hartung H-P, Friese MA, Linker RA, Luessi F, Lehmann-Horn K, Mühlau M, Paul F, Stangel M, Tackenberg B, Tumani H, Warnke C, Weber F, Wildemann B, Zettl UK, Ziemann U, Müller-Myhsok B, Kümpfel T, Klotz L, Meuth SG, Zipp F, Hemmer B, Hohlfeld R, Brassat D, Gold R, Gross CC, Lukas C, Groppa S, Loser K, Wiendl H, Schwab N, German Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis (KKNMS) and the BIONAT Network. 2021. Sunlight exposure exerts immunomodulatory effects to reduce multiple sclerosis severity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 118(1):e2018457118.

News

Thu, 28/01/2021
BioNTech Publishes Data on Novel mRNA Vaccine Approach to Treat Autoimmune Diseases in Science
BioNTech SE (Nasdaq: BNTX, “BioNTech” or “the Company”) announced the publication of preclinical data on its novel mRNA vaccine approach against autoimmune diseases in the peer-reviewed journal Science. The publication titled “A non-inflammatory mRNA vaccine for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis” co-authored by SFB principal investigator Ari Waisman summarizes the findings on the disease-suppressing effects […]...more
Wed, 20/01/2021
A new study on neurological manifestations of severe COVID-19 reveals nervous system immune deficiency
Patients suffering from COVID-19 can develop concomitant and long-term symptoms in their nervous system. The most common symptom in this context is the loss of the sense of smell and taste, while more severe symptoms such as stroke, cerebral seizures, or meningitis are possible. A team of scientists from the medical faculties at the Universities […]...more
Fri, 15/01/2021
Sunlight exposure exerts immunomodulatory effects to reduce multiple sclerosis severity
It has long been acknowledged that multiple sclerosis disease risk is associated with reduced sun-exposure, and subsequent low vitamin D levels. The study by Ostkamp et al. now assessed the relationship between measures of sun exposure and MS severity. For this, the researchers analyzed data of around 2,000 patients from the German NationMS- and the […]...more